Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Mapping Y-DNA M253 in France



Mapping Y-DNA M253 (I1) in France
In search of Norman ancestors in France







The use of Y-DNA in family history studies has helped to provide clues for reconstructing the
family tree. It is instructive to map out known M253 samples in France from the Y-Search database in order to see if their is any correlation of the mapping to what is known about the Normans in the historical record.

Population density studies can provide information about country of origin, such as that from Rootsi et. al., in 2004. This paper had shown a high density of the M253 (I1a, or now I1 haplotype group) to be located in Norway, providing a clear clue that M253 could be of Norman Viking descent.


The area of Normandy itself was conquered by the Romans in 98 AD, and with the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, became dominated by the Franks. Cave paintings and megaliths in Normandy prove that humans have been present in Normandy since prehistoric times.






A review of Viking history shows that the Normans originated from the northern Scandinavian areas, known as "Norsemen," or men from the north. This particular branch of Vikings raided the coast of Normandy in the 8th century, and established the area of Normandy, France in 911 AD. The Normans later invaded England with the Norman Conquest in 1066, and generally shared territories in England and Normandy until Normandy was integrated into the Kingdom of France in 1204.

Knowing that M253 has a high population density in Norway, and knowing that the Normans settled the area of Normandy and England, it is helpful to examine the Y-DNA in order to determine of we can identify who may be of Norman descent. This particular study concentrates on mapping the known M253 (I1) Y-DNA participants in the Y-Search database.


In general, I1 is found in northern France, not just in the area of Normandy, but also along the east and west borders. Of the 32 samples found in Y-Search, 20 of them provide a specific city location in France, and about 12 provide only "France" as the location of their ancestry. Only three specifically indicated the area of
Normandy as the location of their ancestry.

Which is to say, population densityof M253 in France today suggests that the greatest concentration is in the region of Alsace Lorraine. However, it is not the mapping, but the phylogeny of the Y-DNA participants in France that tells us that most M253 in France today is of Norman descent. That is, the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor suggests that nearly two thirds of the Y-Search samples in France are of Norman descent.



M253 Y-DNA map in France
( click on image to enlarge)

The Y-Search samples are marked by numbering in red in the map (above). The details of the Y-Search mapping of the individual M253 samples is given below:


========================================================================== France

Y-Search Surname Location

ID


1) U7MDP........Barron................Normandy, France
2) XDPFV
........Blanchard...........Martaize, Loudun, Dept. of Vienne, France
3) TSCUH........Brochard............Longeville-lès-Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France
....H9UNV
.........Cauchebrais......France
4) EEWM3.......Clergeau............Mouzeil, France
....QEQU3
........Coslow...............France
5) Q8SAX........Croteau..............Rouen, France
6) RD4SF.........Dendinger..........Oberroedern, Alsace/Elsass, France
7) 9Z4EE.........Desjardin............Joigny, France
....JXPRP.........Desrochers..........France
....U3BH9.........de Umfraville (modal)..........France
....FHEVP.........Embry...................France
8) HWN57........fitz Osbern..........Crepon, France
9) 9E6CR........Habant.................Remiremont, France
....PWFVE
........Hitt .......................France
....MWKD3
........JULIAN................France
....2DRWF
.........JULIAN................France
....4DYN5
..........JULIAN.................France
10) Y7GVD........Le Cun.................Tonquédec, France
11) KVYFG.........Leindecker..........Vescheim, Lorraine/Lothringen, France
12) Q6TPY..........Leindecker..........Bas Rhin, France
......3D749
..........Mallett..................France
13) 65X9Z..........Pallette.................Le Pallet, France
14) 5GJAW........Schumacher........Alsace-Lorraine/Elsass-Lothringen, France
15) SYU9K........Shappee...............Lorraine Province, France
......CMJ3D
.......Shiflett ..................France
16) NJ57E.........Souviney...............Rennes, France
17) NNSGK.......Tessier.................Angoumais, France
......Y9QEE
........Tippit.................... France
18) QAZCS........Turlin....................Saint-Germain-sous-Doue, France, France
19) B83EG........Vermette..............Arras Pas-De-Calais, France
20) GJVK6........Vilmur....................Paris, France

==========================================================================

When these samples are analyzed for TMRCA, the Common Ancestor typically dates from 700 to 1600 years ago. The minimum TMRCA was 150 years, and the maximum TMRCA was given as 3350 years ago (TSCUH and either KVYFG or Q6TPY). Which is to say, even within the area of Lorraine, the age estimate on the TMRCA has a large variation.

A significant portion of the samples (
most individuals on the phylogenetic tree from the JULIAN surname and above) share a common ancestor from 700 to 1500 years ago. In general, the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor does correspond to the Viking activity in France, and the distribution today appears to be most dense in the area of Alsace-Lorraine.

The relatively small sample of markers for M253 distribution in France suggests that not many of this haplotype remained in France.


The phylogenetic tree of the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor of these individuals is given below:



M253 in France phylogenetic tree
(click on image to enlarge)



For France, the number of markers tested per individual varied from 25 markers to 76 markers. Kits with 25 marker results may not present reliable information for the time frame studied. For this study, kits with 25 marker results were B83EG, NNSGK, XDPFV, 5GJAW, TSCUH, and U7MDP.

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References:

History of Normandy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Normandy.htm

Norman Conquest of England http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Conquest_of_England.htm

The Bayeux Tapestry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayeux_Tapestry


Y-Search: http://www.ysearch.org/


Dean McGee's Y-DNA Comparison Utility: http://www.mymcgee.com/tools/yutility.html


The HAM DNA Project: http://home.earthlink.net/~odoniv/HamCountry/HAMCountry.html


Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004. http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Rootsi2004.pdf


Cristian Capelli et. al., A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles, 2003 Cell Press. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0960982203003737 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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